XB-ART-27781Anat Embryol (Berl) 1988 Jan 01;1775:381-7. doi: 10.1007/bf00304734.
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The initial formation of muscle spindles was studied with electron microscopy using the toe muscle of Xenopus laevis. At the larval stage 57 (Nieuwkoop and Faber 1967), muscle spindles were first identified primarily by the presence of sensory endings associated with a thin bundle of myotubes, e.g. intrafusal (IF) myotubes which were partly invested by a single cellular layer. The number of IF myotubes per spindle was 5 to 6; the adult complement. IF- and extrafusal (EF) myotubes were almost identical in their size and structure. A few thinner IF myotubes with scarce myofibrils were also present. The reticular zone had been undeveloped. Sensory endings were smaller in size and in number per spindle than those in the adult, forming irregular beaded chains with occasional tubular expansions. The endings and IF myotubes were rarely in direct contact, being frequently interposed by a satellite cell and its process. Incipient fusimotor endings were widely distributed from the juxta-equatorial to the polar region. Large cored vesicles resembling the neurosecretory vesicles occurred in sensory and motor endings as well as in intramuscular nerve fibers. The vesicles may be involved in the neuronal influence upon the spindle differentiation. The results were compared with the formative process of mammalian spindles.
PubMed ID: 2966597
Article link: Anat Embryol (Berl)
Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
References [+] :
Barker, Development and regeneration of mammalian muscle spindles. 1984, Pubmed