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Dev Biol 1996 May 01;1752:256-64. doi: 10.1006/dbio.1996.0113.
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Overexpression of Xgsk-3 disrupts anterior ectodermal patterning in Xenopus.

Pierce SB , Kimelman D .

The Xenopus homolog of glycogen synthase kinase-3, Xgsk-3, plays a major role in regulating the formation of the dorsal-ventral axis, most likely through effects on the mesoderm. To determine whether Xgsk-3 is involved in ectodermal patterning, Xgsk-3 was ectopically overexpressed in the presumptive ectoderm. This approach resulted in a dramatically expanded cement gland, which is due to early changes in cement gland specification at the anterior end of the embryo. Explant experiments were used to show that Xgsk-3 overexpression enhances the response of ectoderm to cement-gland-inducing signals from the mesoderm and to the intercellular signaling factor noggin. Expression of two other noggin-inducible genes, Xotx2 and XANF-2, was also expanded in whole embryos, while the expression of the epidermal marker, Xgbx-2, was eliminated. These results suggest that Xgsk-3 may play a role in anterior ectodermal patterning as a component of an intracellular pathway that regulates the ectodermal responsiveness to endogenous inducing signals.

PubMed ID: 8626031
Article link: Dev Biol
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: ag1 gbx2 gbx2.2 gsk3b gys1 hesx1 nog otx2

Article Images: [+] show captions