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Dev Dyn 1999 Mar 01;2143:259-68. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(199903)214:3<259::AID-AJA9>3.0.CO;2-G.
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Molecular cloning of the Notophthalmus viridescens radical fringe cDNA and characterization of its expression during forelimb development and adult forelimb regeneration.

Cadinouche MZ , Liversage RA , Muller W , Tsilfidis C .

Larval and adult newts provide important experimental models to study limb development and regeneration. These animals have exceptional ability to regenerate their appendages, as well as other vital structures. Our research examines the role of the fringe gene (fng) in the developing and regenerating adult newt forelimb. Fringe codes for a secretory protein. It was first discovered in Drosophila, and later homologues were isolated in Xenopus laevis, chick and mouse. This gene has been highly conserved throughout evolution, indicating its crucial role in vertebrate and invertebrate development. We have isolated, cloned, and sequenced the full length of the Notophthalmus viridescens radical fringe cDNA (nrFng) by screening a newt forelimb blastema cDNA library with a 500-bp fragment of the Xenopus lunatic fringe cDNA. The newt fringe cDNA codes for a 396 amino acid protein with a predicted N-terminal signal sequence. Newt fringe shows high homology with radical fringe homologues of many species. Whole mount mRNA in situ hybridization on several stages of newt limb development reveals that nrFng is first expressed in the limb field, with intense expression as the limb bud develops. However, gene expression diminishes with more advanced digit development. A significant role in adult forelimb regeneration is also evident, as we isolated the cDNA from a regeneration-specific library and found it highly expressed during the regenerative phases of active cell division and then down regulated at sites undergoing differentiation and morphogenesis.

PubMed ID: 10090152
Article link: Dev Dyn

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: dio3 rfng

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