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Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol 2015 Jan 01;41:33-44. doi: 10.1002/wdev.163.
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Development of the vertebrate tailbud.

The anatomical tailbud is a defining feature of all embryonic chordates, including vertebrates that do not end up with a morphological tail. Due to its seamless continuity with trunk tissues, the tailbud is often overlooked as a mere extension of the body axis; however, the formation of the tail from the tailbud undoubtedly involves unique and distinct mechanisms for forming axial tissues, such as the secondary neurulation process that generates the tailbud-derived spinal cord. Tailbud formation in the frog Xenopus laevis has been demonstrated to involve interaction of three posterior regions of the embryo that first come into alignment at the end of gastrulation, and molecular models for tailbud outgrowth and patterning have been proposed. While classical studies of other vertebrate models, such as the chicken, initially appeared to draw incompatible conclusions, molecular studies have subsequently shown the involvement of at least some similar genetic pathways. Finally, there is an emerging consensus that at least some vertebrate tailbud cells are multipotent progenitors with the ability to form tissues normally derived from different germ layers- a trait normally associated with regeneration of complex appendages, or stem-like cells.

PubMed ID: 25382697
Article link: Wiley Interdiscip Rev Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: cdx4 cyp26a1 dll1 dlx5 evx1 fgfr1 gdf11.1 gdf11.2 hes6.1 hes6.2 kcnt1 lfng mesp2 notch1 tbx2 tbx6 tbxt wnt3a

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