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Dev Biol 2009 Jul 15;3312:281-91. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2009.05.547.
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Flow on the right side of the gastrocoel roof plate is dispensable for symmetry breakage in the frog Xenopus laevis.

Vick P , Schweickert A , Weber T , Eberhardt M , Mencl S , Shcherbakov D , Beyer T , Blum M .

Leftward flow of extracellular fluid breaks the bilateral symmetry of most vertebrate embryos, manifested by the ensuing asymmetric induction of Nodal signaling in the left lateral plate mesoderm (LPM). Flow is generated by rotational beating of polarized monocilia at the posterior notochord (PNC; mammals), Kupffer's vesicle (KV; teleost fish) and the gastrocoel roof plate (GRP; amphibians). To manipulate flow in a defined way we cloned dynein heavy chain genes dnah5, 9 and 11 in Xenopus. dnah9 expression was closely related to motile cilia from neurulation onwards. Morphant tadpoles showed impaired epidermal ciliary beating. Leftward flow at the GRP was absent, resulting in embryos with loss of asymmetric marker gene expression. Remarkably, unilateral knockdown on the right side of the GRP did not affect laterality, while left-sided ablation of flow abolished marker gene expression. Thus, flow was required exclusively on the left side of the GRP to break symmetry in the frog. Our data suggest that the substrate of flow is generated within the GRP and not at its margin, disqualifying Nodal as a candidate morphogen.

PubMed ID: 19450574
Article link: Dev Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: dnah11 dnah5 dnah9 fes nodal nodal1 pitx2 tuba4b
Antibodies: Tuba4b Ab4
Morpholinos: dnah5 MO1 dnah9 MO2 dnah9 MO3

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + dnah5 MO (fig.5.b) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions