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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2013 Mar 01;53:a015081. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a015081.
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Secreted and transmembrane wnt inhibitors and activators.

Cruciat CM , Niehrs C .

Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins plays important roles in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signaling is modulated by a number of evolutionarily conserved inhibitors and activators. Wnt inhibitors belong to small protein families, including sFRP, Dkk, WIF, Wise/SOST, Cerberus, IGFBP, Shisa, Waif1, APCDD1, and Tiki1. Their common feature is to antagonize Wnt signaling by preventing ligand-receptor interactions or Wnt receptor maturation. Conversely, the Wnt activators, R-spondin and Norrin, promote Wnt signaling by binding to Wnt receptors or releasing a Wnt-inhibitory step. With few exceptions, these antagonists and agonists are not pure Wnt modulators, but also affect additional signaling pathways, such as TGF-β and FGF signaling. Here we discuss their interactions with Wnt ligands and Wnt receptors, their role in developmental processes, as well as their implication in disease.

PubMed ID: 23085770
PMC ID: PMC3578365
Article link: Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol

Species referenced: Xenopus
Genes referenced: apcdd1 cer1 dkk1 ndp shisa1 trabd2a

References [+] :
Adamska, En1 and Wnt7a interact with Dkk1 during limb development in the mouse. 2004, Pubmed