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Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Dec 12;912:. doi: 10.3390/antiox9121265.
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Xenopus gpx3 Mediates Posterior Development by Regulating Cell Death during Embryogenesis.

Lee H , Ismail T , Kim Y , Chae S , Ryu HY , Lee DS , Kwon TK , Park TJ , Kwon T , Lee HS .

Glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3) belongs to the glutathione peroxidase family of selenoproteins and is a key antioxidant enzyme in multicellular organisms against oxidative damage. Downregulation of GPx3 affects tumor progression and metastasis and is associated with liver and heart disease. However, the physiological significance of GPx3 in vertebrate embryonic development remains poorly understood. The current study aimed to investigate the functional roles of gpx3 during embryogenesis. To this end, we determined gpx3's spatiotemporal expression using Xenopus laevis as a model organism. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we demonstrated the zygotic nature of this gene. Interestingly, the expression of gpx3 enhanced during the tailbud stage of development, and whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) analysis revealed gpx3 localization in prospective tail region of developing embryo. gpx3 knockdown using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) resulted in short post-anal tails, and these malformed tails were significantly rescued by glutathione peroxidase mimic ebselen. The gene expression analysis indicated that gpx3 knockdown significantly altered the expression of genes associated with Wnt, Notch, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways involved in tailbud development. Moreover, RNA sequencing identified that gpx3 plays a role in regulation of cell death in the developing embryo. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and phospho-histone 3 (PH3) staining confirmed the association of gpx3 knockdown with increased cell death and decreased cell proliferation in tail region of developing embryos, establishing the involvement of gpx3 in tailbud development by regulating the cell death. Furthermore, these findings are inter-related with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in gpx3 knockdown embryos, as measured by using a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe HyPer. Taken together, our results suggest that gpx3 plays a critical role in posterior embryonic development by regulating cell death and proliferation during vertebrate embryogenesis.

PubMed ID: 33322741
PMC ID: PMC7764483
Article link: Antioxidants (Basel)
Grant support: [+]

Species referenced: Xenopus laevis
Genes referenced: fgf8 gabpa gpx3 nfe2l2 not notch1 tbx6 tbxt wnt3a wnt5a wnt5b
Morpholinos: gpx3 MO1 gpx3 MO2

Phenotypes: Xla Wt + gpx3 MO (Fig. 1 C (mid), D) [+]

Article Images: [+] show captions
References [+] :
An, GPx3-mediated redox signaling arrests the cell cycle and acts as a tumor suppressor in lung cancer cell lines. 2018, Pubmed